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My 574 D239 runs great, no miss or blow-by at all. But it is slobbering diesel out stack at idle. Slight white smoke at idle. I blocked the cold start fuel line that goes directly to the intake, but still making a mess. Does not do it under load or at higher RPMs. Looking for advise.
 

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I would say there is extreme piston ring wear and you're not getting the 16 -1 compression.
 

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It runs great with zero blow by. According to manual the D239 should have 12:1 compression ratio. Either way, I will figure a way to check it.
 

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If it runs as good as you say I would change the engine oil and filter then work it and get it up to operating temperature a few times. That will tell you a lot about the engine.
 

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On these older diesels white smoke on cold start is just condensation being burnt off.If it does it all the time when you are operating it might have a little leaky head gasket. Spitting or wet stacking is from not being worked hard enough,not reaching operating temperature and idling too much.Spit is usually soot with a little moisture.Your exhaust manifold is probably full of soot These diesels hate idling for long periods of time.Do what Jim said change oil & filter after the engine is hot but please use the recommended oil & filter. Owner's manual would say 80 degrees 30W, 40 degrees to 70 20W & less 30 degrees 10W. Use the correct Synthetic 15W 40 Diesel oil that will spec back to your machine. Check air filter & fuel filter.You might have a leaky injector dribbling fuel after shut down. Also valve guides get worn and little rubber caps get brittle & let oil from the head leak to on top of the piston. If you have to shut off fuel to stop engine leave it pulled out or shut off! It may stop some of the fuel leaking.Also more than once I have seen a motor start on it it's own as dirt or crud or God knows what arcs across the solenoid & fires her up. Use the best diesel fuel you can buy or use Bio-Diesel Fuel as is extremely clean burning and has the highest BTU content of any alternative fuel .Even though heating oil is the same color as off road fuel is not the same as off road diesel.Use an additive in your fuel.Check your crankcase vent PCV it might be plugged. Look at the oil cap? If it looks like somebody puked on it you may not be getting it hot enough.Spec is 195 degrees. Or bad head gasket. To run it under a good load we would bungee cord all the hydraulic controls to load it. What the load is does not really matter. Keep in mind that the exhaust manifold is cast iron which is porous and could be saturated with unburnt fuel or oil so check exhaust bolts & the manifold. It could take a few hours to clean up completely. This is a very good little tractor and the engine is EZ to work on. Order a shop manual & a parts manual. Also this information is from 54 years of learning from the many mistakes yours truly has made. Gotta go fill my windbag back up so I can be a blow hard. Good luck to ya!
 
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